“The Pressure in the Interior of a Star” (Chandrasekhar) [Vol 85 pp. 372-379] WITH “The Opacity in the Interior of a Star” (Chandrasekhar) [Vol 86 pp. 78-83] WITH “On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae” (Zwicky) [Vol 86 pp. 217-246] in Astrophysical Journal 85 & 86 (bound together) 1937. S. Subrahmanyam Chandrasekhar, Fritz Zwicky, Subramanyan.

“The Pressure in the Interior of a Star” (Chandrasekhar) [Vol 85 pp. 372-379] WITH “The Opacity in the Interior of a Star” (Chandrasekhar) [Vol 86 pp. 78-83] WITH “On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae” (Zwicky) [Vol 86 pp. 217-246] in Astrophysical Journal 85 & 86 (bound together) 1937

Chicago: University of Chicago, 1937. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION OF TWO PAPERS BY NOBEL PRIZE WINNER SUBRAMANYAN CHANDRASEKHAR & ONE BY FRITZ ZWICKY. Chandrasekhar’s work on stellar evolution showed that after burning their fuel, stars enter a continual & dramatic collapse, works that contain “he seeds of the concept of black holes. "For theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars", Chandra won the 1983 Nobel Prize.

In 1935, the Indian American astrophysicist Chandrasekhar had shown “that the existence of a limiting mass meant that a white-dwarf state does not exist for stars that are more massive” & demonstrating “the effect of special relativity is to reduce the power of the pressure dependence on density from 5/3 to 4/3. ‘These completely collapsed configurations have a natural limit & our exact treatment now shows how this limit is reached’” -- a definitive demonstration of the fate of white dwarves daring to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit (Miller).

The first of the two Chandrasekhar offered here, is one of two papers in which Chandrasekhar “proved some general theorems on the equilibrium of a star. These theorems are of some importance in the theory of stellar structures, in so far as they provide inequalities for the physical variables, e.g., central pressure, mean pressure, central radiation pressure, which should be valid under very general circumstances” (Chandrasekhar 1937, 372). In it, Chandrasekhar demonstrates that “the pressure at the center of a star must be intermediate between those at the centers of two configurations of uniform density… [thus] satisfying this inequality is a necessary condition for the stable existence of a star” (Srinivasan).

Chandrasekhar cites the 1st paper offered here at the start of the 2nd. With the goal of obtaining certain inequalities for equilibrium configurations in radiative equilibrium, Chandrasekhar develops and proves two integral theorems on the radiative equilibrium of a gaseous star.

Fritz Zwicky’s paper “On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae” is the English translation of the paper in which Zwicky reports missing mass in the Coma Cluster, coins the term ‘cold dark matter’, briefly mentions the possibility of using nebulae as gravitational lenses, and presents his theory advocating the use of statistical mechanics to explain galaxy distribution.

From the beginning of the paper, Zwicky "took issue with Hubble on a number of points [announcing] that the determination of the masses of extragalactic nebulae was a central problem for astrophysics. 'Masses of nebulae until recently were estimated either from the luminosities of nebulae or from their internal rotations', he noted, and then asserted that both these methods of reckoning nebular masses were unreliable. The adding up of observed luminosities gave figures that are clearly too low; and the models used for reckoning mass on the basis of observed internal motions were too indeterminate. Better models were needed, not least because Zwicky was convinced that in addition to luminous matter, galaxies included 'dark matter'. "He wrote, 'We must know how much dark matter is incorporated in nebulae in the forms of cool and cold stars, macroscopic and microscopic solid bodies, and gases' (Zwicky 1937). The basic principles Zwicky introduced to counter his issues with Hubble were two-fold: The system of external nebulae throughout the known parts of the universe forms a statistically stationary system. Every constellation of nebulae is to be endowed with a probability weight which is a function of the total energy of this constellation. Item #1127

CONDITION & DETAILS: University of Chicago Press. Complete, volumes 85 & 86 bound together. 4to. 404 & 634pp. Institutional discrete stamp at foot of spine, none interior. 46 photographic plates throughout. Bound in marbled boards with some minor scuffing over black cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Tight bound. Bright and clean throughout. Very good.

Price: $750.00