Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons in Physical Review Volume 145, 1966, pp. 1156–1163 [PETER HIGGS PREDICTS THE 2012 DISCOVERY OF THE HIGGS BOSON]. Peter Higgs.

Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown without Massless Bosons in Physical Review Volume 145, 1966, pp. 1156–1163 [PETER HIGGS PREDICTS THE 2012 DISCOVERY OF THE HIGGS BOSON]

Lancaster: 1966. 1st Edition. Bound full volume: FIRST EDITION OF THE NOBEL PRIZE WINNING 1966 PAPER IN WHICH PETER HIGGS PREDICTED THE 2012 DISCOVERY OF THE HIGGS BOSON.

A type of subatomic particle, bosons are able to occupy the same point in space as do other different matter particles (like electrons) which otherwise can never overlap. “Many Higgs bosons clumped together make up the Higgs field, this field causes particles to have mass. Without the Higgs field, the universe would just be individual particles zipping around at the speed of light, no atoms of any kind would exist. The Higgs field is everywhere so particles travel through it all the time. However, particles with a greater mass will interact more with the Higgs field than particles with a lower mass. This would explain why two particles, which are the same size, can have different masses” (Impact, Univ. of Nottingham, 29 October 2013).

“In 1966 [and in this paper], Higgs followed up on his earlier work and wrote a longer paper in which he considered the decay of the massive boson. This showed that if vector bosons have acquired their masses as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the more massive the vector boson is, the greater its affinity for the Higgs boson. In 1967, Steven Weinberg recognized that the electron too can acquire mass by this mechanism. If spontaneous symmetry breaking gives mass to all fundamental particles – whether they are the massive W and Z bosons, or fermions such as the electron, its more massive sibling the muon, and even heavier tau – it will be the decay pattern of the Higgs into these various particles that will prove it. According to the theory, the Higgs boson will tend to produce the massive flavors of a given family more readily than their lightweight counterparts” (Close, The Infinity Puzzle, 167).

Understandably unstable, it took until 2012 to prove Higgs correct.  At CERN in Switzerland, protons were accelerated nearly to the speed of light and then were smashed together. If Higgs was correct, in one out of every 10 billion collisions, a Higgs boson will be formed. However, even if one is formed, it can’t be observed directly because it exists for so short a time before breaking down. To account for this, physicists at CERN recorded the remnants of the collision and worked backwards, piecing together what particles came from the decay of the Higgs. By doing this, they have found the previously undiscovered boson.

This paper "launched the concept known nowadays as the Higgs Boson" (DeWiit-Morette, The Pursuit of Quantum, 82). Item #1322

CONDITION & DETAILS: Full volume. Lancaster: American Physical Society. 4to (10.75 x 8 inches; 268 x 200mm). Entire volume, continuously paginated pp. 1-1360. Higgs paper: pp.1156-1163. Ex-libris with minimal markings within (no spine markings whatsoever). Illustration: In-text figures throughout. Exterior: Bound in black buckram with a gilt-lettered spine. Tight, solid. Interior: Bright and very clean throughout. Fine condition in every way.

Price: $700.00