## Eine neue Strahlungshypothese (Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 13 No. 3 pp. 138-148, February 15, 1911) WITH Uber die Begrundung des Gesetzes der schwarzen Strahlung (Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 14 No. 2 pp. 113–118, January 30, 1912) WITH Uber die Begrundung des Gesetzes der schwarzen Strahlung (Annalen der Physik 37 No. 4 pp. 642–656, 1913). [PLANCK'S SECOND QUANTUM THEORY AND ZERO POINT ENERGY]

Braunschweig: Druck und Vieweg. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITIONS OF A SERIES OF 3 PAPERS BY PLANCK TOGETHER MARKING “THE BIRTH OF THE CONCEPT OF ZERO-POINT ENERGY (Miloni, The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics, 10). The issues in which the three papers appeared have been bound together (complete with their respective title pages) in a handsome Sammelband (a volume containing a number of works). In them, Planck describes his second quantum theory, including zero point energy.

“The concept of zero-point energy has its roots in a reformulation of the original version of quantum theory proposed by Max Planck in 1900. The revised version was presented in a series of works from 1911 to 1913” – the series of works offered here (Kragh, Prelude to Dark Energy Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Vol. 66, No. 3 (May 2012), 7). The revised version is known as Planck’s second quantum theory of radiation.

“In Planck’s second quantum theory, his modified statistical approach created a small artifact: No matter the temperature of an object, and no matter the color of light one examined, there [was] always an extra little “chunklet” equal to half of one quantum of energy. It was a trifle and could largely be ignored in most cases… [but] the effect, the ‘zero-point energy,’ [was] real. It described a sort of very low-level but ubiquitous seething of energy,” a very small but real electromagnetic energy that is present even at absolute zero temperature due to the random creation of virtual particle/antiparticle pairs (Brown, Planck, Driven by Vision, 218). The phenomenon is the result of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the understanding of this phenomenon is the basis for the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED).

When, in 1911 – and in the first paper offered -- Planck modified his quantum, he assumed that the emission of radiation is quantized but the absorption is not. While Einstein interpreted quantization as the quantization of energy within an electromagnetic field, “Planck, however, took the quantization merely as an epiphenomenon caused by the limitations of the resonators’ oscillatory modes, which emit the electromagnetic energy. Accordingly, the energy quantization was just a consequence of those releases of energy, artificially produced packet-wise, so to speak, by the resonators, whereas the transmitting fields themselves could have any arbitrary energy” (Hentschel, Photons, 23).

In 1912 – and in the second paper and third papers offered -- Planck describes “the discontinuous emission of radiation, based on the discrete quanta of energy” (Wikipedia). He noted that a small energy term remains at a temperature of absolute zero, an amount less than hv/2, where h is Planck’s constant and v is the frequency. According to Planck “This rest energy remains with the oscillator, on the average, at the absolute zero of temperature...” (Mehra, Golden Age of Theoretical Physics, 60). Item #1373

CONDITION & DETAILS: 8vo. The issues in which the three papers appeared have been bound together (complete with their respective title pages) in a handsome Sammelband (a volume containing a number of works). Handsomely bound in leather over marbled paper boards. Gilt-lettered at the spine with another label on the front board. Pristine inside and out. Fine condition.

TITLES: Eine neue Strahlungshypothese (1911); Über die Begründung des Gesetzes der schwarzen Strahlung (1912); Über die Begründung des Gesetzes der schwarzen Strahlung (1913).

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Price:
$575.00
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