## Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities in Physical Review Letters, Vol. 14, 1965, pp. 57-59

New York: American Physical Society, 1965. 1st Edition. Bound full volume, FIRST EDITION of Roger Penrose’s 1965 proof laying “the foundations of the modern mathematical theory of gravitational collapse” (DeWitt-Morette, Black Holes, 126).

In a discovery with profound ramifications for the Big Bang Theory and crucial in understanding of black holes and modern physics, Penrose used the equations of general relativity to show that “when a large object [such as enormous, dying stars] collapses under its own gravity it must, according to Einstein's theory, necessarily end up containing a ‘singularity’ [a place of zero volume and thus of infinite density such as a black hole]” (ibid). Building on the work of Wheeler and Chandrasekhar, and others, Penrose demonstrated “that if the universe obeys general relativity and several other constraints, when a very massive star has no nuclear fuel left to burn and collapses under the force of its own gravity, it will inevitably be crushed to a point of infinite density and infinite spacetime curvature, a singularity. [He showed that] this will happen even if the collapse isn’t perfectly smooth and symmetrical. No ‘might’ about it. It must” (Ferguson, Fire in the Equations, 101).

Using “the wealth of new techniques and concepts which were introduced in [Penrose’s] proof, particularly the notion of a trapped surface and the idea of treating boundary horizons as dynamic entities in their own right,” Penrose collaborated with a fellow member of his study group at Cambridge named Stephen Hawking. In 1970 they demonstrated that Penrose singularities can occur with any type of gravitational collapse, including that of the big bang at the beginning of time (DeWitt, 126).

ALSO INCLUDED IN THIS VOLUME: Chandrasekhar, “Post-Newtonian equations of hydrodynamics and the stability of gaseous masses in general relativity”, pp. 241-244; Low, “Heavy electrons and muons,” pp. 238-239; Glashow, “Model of Weak Interactions With CP Violation,” pp. 35-38; Glashow & Weinberg, “Phase of the CP Invariance Violation in Tau-Zero Decay,” pp. 835-836; Bardeen & Stephen, "Viscosity Of Type-Ii Superconductors," pp. 112-115; Ramsay & Wilson, "Baryon Spectroscopy By Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering,” pp. 326-328; and a number of papers by Lederman and Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Item #1528

CONDITION & DETAILS: Volume 14, complete. 4to (10.5 x 8 inches; 263 x 200mm). Ex-libris bearing two numbers at the foot of the spine (see photo) and two nearly invisible blind stamps on the prelims. Bound in green buckram that is pristine. Tightly and very solidly bound. Bright and clean throughout. Near fine condition.

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Price:
$390.00
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