## Behaviour of Neutral Particles Under Charge Conjugation-Article (Gell-Mann, Pais pp. 1387-1389) WITH Boson-Fermion Scattering in the Heisenberg Representation (Low, pp. 1392-1399) in The Physical Review 97, No. 5, March 1, 1955 [INDIVIDUAL ISSUE, ORIGINAL WRAPPERS]

Lancaster: American Physical Society, 1955. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPPERS of a paper in which Murray Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais make an interesting prediction about the decay of the kaon. A paper by Francis Low is also included (more below).

“Murray Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais (1955) used an argument based on C invariance… to discuss the production and decay of a particle known as the neutral K meson, or K0. This particle, according to a theory by Gell-Mann and Kazuo Nishijima, carried a quantum number called strangeness, with S(K0 ) = +1, and so there should exist a neutral anti-K meson, called K 0 , with S(K 0 ) = –1. The theory demanded that strangeness be conserved in K-meson production but violated in its decay. Both the K0 and the K0 should be able to decay to a pair of mesons (e.g., + ). How, then, would one tell them apart? Gell-Mann and Pais solved this problem by applying a basic idea of quantum mechanics: The particle decaying to + would have to have the same behavior under C (in 1957, under CP) as the final + combination, which has CP = +1. (That is, its quantum-mechanical state is taken into itself under the CP operation.) A quantum-mechanical combination of K0 and K 0 with this property was called K0 1 . There should then exist another combination of K0 and K 0 with CP = –1 (i.e., its quantum-mechanical state is changed in sign under the CP operation). This particle was called K0 2 . (The subscripts 1 and 2 were used simply to distinguish the two particles from one another.) The 2 K0 2 would be forbidden by CP invariance from decaying to and thus, being required to decay to three-body final states, would be much longer-lived. This predicted particle was discovered in 1956” (Rosner, CP Symmetry Violation, 1).

In 1969 Gell-Man was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics "for his work in classifying elementary particles and their interactions.”

FRANCIS LOW PAPER: “It is shown that the S-matrix for boson-fermion scattering can be simply expressed in the Heisenberg representation. By performing a time integration one obtains the S-matrix in the Schrödinger representation, which has the same form as the conventional perturbation theory sum over states. Suitably limiting the nature of the intermediate states entering into this sum leads to integral equations for certain matrix elements which are equal to the S-matrix elements on the energy shell. These equations appear in a completely renormalized form” (Abstract). Item #1558

CONDITION & DETAILS: 1st ed. original wrappers. Complete issue paginated 1191-1417. 4to (10.5 x 8 inches; 263 x 200mm). The wrappers are perfect save for a stamp on front wrap; the interior has barely visible toning upper right margin of some pages.

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