Conservation of Isotopic Spin and Isotopic Gauge Invariance (Yang, pp. 191-196) WITH Scattering of Low-Energy Photons by Particles of Spin 1/2 (Gell-Mann, pp. 1433-1438) WITH in Properties of Bethe-Salpeter Wave Functions (pp. 1124-1134) in Physical Review 96 (1), October 1, 1954 [YANG-MILLS QUANTUM MECHANICAL THEORY with GELL-MANN CROSSING SYMMETRY with WICK'S THEOREM]


Also included in this volume is the paper in which Gell-Mann and Goldberger introduce crossing symmetry. “It is shown that an exact calculation in quantum field theory gives results identical with those obtained by classical methods or else by use of the Dirac equation with an anomalous Pauli moment” (Abstract). Also included is an important paper by Gian Carlo Wick introducing Wick’s Theorem, a method of reducing high-order derivatives to a combinatorics problem used extensively in quantum field theory.

YANG-MILLS THEORY: The Yang-Mills theory is now the foundation of most of elementary particle theory; it is the mathematical foundation underlying "three of the four fundamental forces of nature that physicists succeeded in unifying in the last half of the 20th century: electromagnetism, the 'weak force' responsible for radioactive decay, and the 'strong force' responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together" (Gale, World of Mathematics Summary). Yang and Mills proposed a tensor equation that relies on a quantum mechanical property called the 'mass gap.' "The laws of quantum physics stand to the world of elementary particles in the way that Newton's laws of classical mechanics stand to the macroscopic world.

Almost half a century ago, Yang and Mills introduced a remarkable new framework to describe elementary particles using structures that also occur in geometry. The successful use of Yang-Mills theory (now widely tested and affirmed) to describe the strong interactions of elementary particles depends on a subtle quantum mechanical property called the "mass gap:" the quantum particles have positive masses, even though the classical waves travel at the speed of light. This property has been discovered by physicists from experiment and confirmed by computer simulations, but it still has not been understood from a theoretical point of view. Progress in establishing the existence of the Yang-Mills theory and a mass gap and will require the introduction of fundamental new ideas both in physics and in mathematics" (Clay Mathematics Institute). Item #1563

CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Physical Society. Volume 96. 4to. This volume includes the October to December issues of 1954, six in total. The front wrap of each issue is included; each with a library stamp in the upper right corner. The wraps are otherwise pristine. A pictorial bookplate appears on the front wrap and a small stamp on the front flyleaf. There are no spine markings at all. Tightly and solidly bound in brown buckram. The journal papers are bright and very clean throughout. Very good + condition.

Price: $225.00