Nuclear Energy Level Argument for a Spheroidal Nuclear Model in The Physical Review, Vol. 79, Second Series, No. 3, August 1, 1950 pp. 432-434 [NEAR FINE, ORIGINAL WRAPS IN CUSTOM CASE]

Lancaster: American Institute of Physics, 1950. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF JAMES RAINWATER’S INFLUENTIAL, NOBEL PRIZE WINNING PAPER ON THE ASYMMETRICAL SHAPES OF CERTAIN ATOMIC NUCLEI. In 1975 the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Aage Bohr, Ben Mottelson, and James Rainwater for "The discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on the connection" (Nobel Prize Portal). This is the first paper noted in "Who's Who of Nobel Prize Winners" (Sherby) as the primary work for which Rainwater was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

In 1949, Rainwater learned of Marie Mayer’s success “in explaining many nuclear phenomena including spins, magnetic moments, isomeric states, etc. on the basis of a single particle model for the separate nucleons in a spherical nucleus” (Rainwater, Phys Rev, 79, 1950, p. 432). He later wrote: Mayer’s thoughts [fit] my belief that a nuclear shell model should represent a proper approach to understanding nuclear structure. Combined with developments of Weizsaker’s semi-empirical explanation of nuclear binding, and the Bohr-Wheeler 1939 paper on nuclear fission, emphasizing distorted nuclear shapes, I was prepared to see an explanation of large nuclear quadrupole moments. The full concept came to me in late 1949 when attending a colloquium by Professor C. H. Townes who described the experimental situation for nuclear quadrupole moments” (Fitch, James Rainwater, National Academy of Sciences, 2009).

In the “trailblazing theoretical” paper Rainwater published the following year quantifying his ideas about nuclear shell models, “he considers the interaction between the main part of the nucleus, which forms an inner core, and the outer, the valence nucleons. He points out that the valence nucleons can influence the shape of the core. Since the valence nucleons move in a field which is determined by the distribution of the inner nucleons, this influence is mutual. If several valence nucleons move in similar orbits, this polarizing effect on the core can be so great that the nucleus as a whole becomes permanently deformed. Expressed very simply, it can be said that as a result of their motion, certain nucleons expose the “walls” of the nucleus to such high centrifugal pressure that it becomes deformed” (Fitch, 9; Johansson, Nobel Prize Presentation Speech, 1975).

Rainwater also attempted to calculate this effect and got results that agreed with experimental data on the charge distributions. Item #1599

CONDITION & DETAILS: First edition in original wraps housed in a new custom made clamshell case, gilt-lettered at the spine; the issue itself has very slight crease at inner foot of rear wrap; bright and clean. Near fine condition. Lancaster, PA: American Institute of Physics. Quarto (10.25 x 7.50 inches; 256 x 188mm).

Price: $300.00