Phase Transitions and Magnetic Monopole Production in the Very Early Universe in Physical Review Letters, Volume 44, Number 10, 10 March 1980, pp. 631-635

New York: American Physical Society, 1980. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION OF THE SECOND OF THREE IMPORTANT STEPS IN GUTH'S DEVELOPMENT OF HIS THEORY OF INFLATION. In this paper, Guth and Tye write: "In grand unified models, the abundance of superheavy magnetic monopoles in the universe can be suppressed if (1) the phase transition which creates the monopoles occurs after much supercooling; and (2) immediately after the phase transition, the effective monopole mass is large compared with the temperature. These requirements impose constraints on the history of the early universe" (PRL 44, 10, 1980, p. 631).

The evolution of Guth's development of his theory of inflation is quite interesting. In 1979 and while at Columbia, Alan Guth heard a lecture by Steven Weinberg. "Weinberg talked in two lectures about the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) that had been developed since 1974, and how it could explain the huge amount of matter in the universe compared to the amount of antimatter. The GUT explained all the fundamental forces known in science except for gravity. It established that in very hot conditions, such as those after the Big Bang, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force were united to form one force.

Weinberg also was the one who emphasized the idea that the universe goes through phase transitions, similar to the phases of matter, when going from high energy to low energy. Weinberg's discussion of why matter is so dominant over anti-matter showed Guth how precise calculations about particles could be obtained by studying the first few seconds of the universe.

Guth decided to solve this problem by suggesting a supercooling during a delayed phase transition. This seemed very promising for solving the magnetic monopole problem. By the time they came up with that, Guth had gone to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for a year, but Guth had been talking to Henry Tye back and forth. Tye suggested that they check that the expansion of the universe not be affected by the supercooling [with this paper being the result] In the supercooled state, a false vacuum is produced. The false vacuum is a vacuum in the sense that it is state of the lowest possible density of energy; it is false in the sense that it is not a permanent state of being. False vacuums decay, and Guth was to find that the decay of the false vacuum at the beginning of the universe would produce amazing results, namely the exponential expansion of space.

This solved the monopole problem, since the expansion dilutes the monopole density. Guth realized from his theory that the reason the universe appears to be flat was that it was fantastically big, just the same way the spherical Earth appears flat to those on its surface. The observable universe was actually only a very small part of the actual universe. Traditional Big Bang theory found values of omega near one to be puzzling, because any deviations from one would quickly become much, much larger. In inflation theory, no matter where omega starts, it would be driven towards equal to one, because the universe becomes so huge. In fact, a major prediction of inflationary theory is that omega will be found to be one." (Wikipedia). Item #375

CONDITION & DETAILS: Quarto (10.5 x 8 inches; 263 x 200mm). Bound in solid, tight, and clean green buckram; gilt-lettered at the spine. Ex-libris (Carnegie Institution) bearing no spine markings whatsoever. The only library marking is a barely visible blind stamp on the blank front flyleaf.

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