HAWKING RADIATION BEFORE HAWKING. First editions of two important papers on black holes, (one in original wraps; one bound). These two works fully present Zel’dovich and Starobinsky’s key role in developing the theory of black hole evaporation due to what would become known as ‘Hawking radiation’. In 1973, one year after the second of these two papers was published, Hawking visited Zel’dovich and Starobinsky in Moscow, convincing him that “according to the quantum mechanical uncertainty principle, rotating black holes should create and emit particles” (Hawking, Brief History of Time).
“In the first paper, Zel'dovich concludes that a rotating body in gravitational collapse (i.e., a black hole) can radiate particles. In the second paper, Zel'dovich and Starobinsky investigate particle production by rotating black holes in detail.These two papers led Hawking to visit Zel'dovich and then investigate the idea further, leading to his famous papers on Hawking radiation” (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection).
In studying analogous flat space physics problems, Zel’dovich and Starobinsky realized “that some modes of radiation fields should be super-radiantly scattered by a rotating black hole; [and as well that] “since super-radiant scattering can be viewed quantum mechanically as stimulated emission, the black hole should also spontaneously emit quanta into these super-radiant modes” (Thorne, Black Holes, 280-281).
When the three scientists met in Moscow, Zel’dovich “described to Hawking his conjecture that a spinning black hole should spontaneously emit all types of waves; gravitational, electromagnetic… and then he described a partial formulation of the laws of quantum fields in curved spacetime that Starobinsky and he had developed, and a tentative proof, using those laws, that a spinning hole does, indeed, emit waves spontaneously” (Sunyaev, Zeldovich, 327).
“By early 1974, Unruh, Ford, and Page, each in his own way, had tentatively confirmed Zel’dovich’s prediction: A Spinning hole should spontaneously emit waves, until all of its spin energy has been used up and the emission turns off. Then came a bombshell. Stephen Hawking, first at a conference in England and then in a 1974 brief technical article in the journal Nature, announced an outrageous conclusion that conflicted with everyone else.
[Hawking’s] calculations predicted that, as the hole spontaneously emits waves and gradually stops spinning, its spontaneous emission does NOT turn off (ibid). He realized that “owing to quantum effects, black holes should emit particles with a thermal distribution of energies – as if the black hole had a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. In addition to putting black-hole thermodynamics on a firmer footing, this discovery led Hawking to postulate ‘black hole explosions’, as primordial black holes end their lives in an accelerating release of energy” (Nature Physics Portal). Item #634
CONDITION & DETAILS: JETP Letters, Volume 14, 1971: Published in English by the American Institute of Physics. Full bound volume. 4to. 11 x 8.5 inches (275 x 213mm). Tightly and solidly bound in black cloth, gilt-lettered at the spine. Ex-libris with minimal markings (very light stamp on front flyleaf; stamp and sleeve on rear pastedown; very slight ghosting from removal of spine label). Very good condition. Soviet Physics JETP 34, No. 6, 1972. 4to. 11 x 8.5 inches (275 x 213mm). Individual issue in original wraps with very light library cancellation stamp on the front wrap; slight scuffing at the edges and spine. Bright and clean. Very good condition.