New York: American Institute of Physics. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF TWO NOBEL PRIZE WINNING PAPERS DESCRIBING & EXPLAINING THE FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT. The 1982 paper by Daniel Tsui and Horst Störmer describes the quantum Hall effect; the 1983 paper by Robert Laughlin introduces the Laughlin wave function to describe the fractional quantum Hall effect as being the result of fractionally-charged quasiparticles.
“The fractional quantum Hall effect is a very counterintuitive physical phenomenon. It implies that many electrons, acting in concert, can create new particles having a charge smaller than the charge of any individual electron. This is not the way things are supposed to be. A collection of objects may assemble to form a bigger object, or the parts may remain their size, but they don’t create anything smaller. If the new particles were doubly-charged, it wouldn’t be so paradoxical – electrons could ‘just stick together’ and form pairs. But fractional charges are very bizarre, indeed. Not only are they smaller than the charge of any constituent electron, but they are exactly 1/3 or 1/5 or 1/7, etc. of an electronic charge, depending on the conditions under which they have been prepapered. And yet we know with certainty, that none of these electrons has split up into pieces” (Störmer, The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, Nobel Lecture, 1998, 295).
In 1982 (and with this paper), German physicist Horst Störmer and Chinese-American physicist Daniel Tsui first present a quantum Hall effect with a quantized charge equal to one-third of an electron in an experiment using powerful magnetic fields and low temperatures.
Building upon the work of Störmer and Tsui, Laughlin was able to explain the fractional quantum Hall effect as a manifestation of the principle of gauge invariance that causes a conductor to behave as if the current is composed of particles with charge smaller than that of an electron (called “fractionally charged quasiparticles”) (History of Physics: The Wenner Collection). “Through theoretical analysis [Laughlin] showed that the electrons in a powerful magnetic field can condense to form a kind of quantum fluid related to the quantum fluids that occur in superconductivity and in liquid helium. What makes these fluids particularly important for researchers is that events in a drop of quantum fluid can afford more profound insights into the general inner structure and dynamics of matter” (Nobel Prize Committee).
The contributions of the three laureates [Störmer, Tsui, and Laughlin] have thus led to yet another breakthrough in our understanding of quantum physics and to the development of new theoretical concepts of significance in many branches of modern physics (ibid). Item #725
CONDITION & DETAILS: Two complete issues in original wraps, both housed in a custom made maroon clamshell case, gilt-lettered on the spine and on the front board. New York: American Physical Society. Quarto (10.25 x 7.50 inches; 256 x 188mm). The case is pristine as are the issues – clean and bright inside and out. Near fine.