## Ueber eine veränderte Form des zweiten Hauptsatzes der mechanischen Wärmetheoriein in Annalen der Physik und Chemie 93 (12) 1854: 481-506.

Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Bart, 1854. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION of the seminal paper in which Clausius fully presents his milestone formulation of the second law of thermodynamics, namely, that "Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time."

In his 1850 paper, the first on this subject, Clausius defines the relationship between work and heat and introduces the concept of "energy of a body" (equivalent to temperature), thus stating the ideas behind the first and second law of thermodynamics. This 1854 paper was the second of his works. In it, Clausius first develops the concepts of interior work, i.e. "those which the atoms of the body exert upon each other," and exterior work, i.e. "those which arise from foreign influences which the body may be exposed", which may act on a working body of fluid or gas, typically functioning to work a piston. He then discusses the three types of heat by which Q may be divided: 1. heat employed in increasing the heat actually existing in the body; 2. heat employed in producing the interior work; 3. heat employed in producing the exterior work. Building on this logic, and following his mathematical presentation of the first fundamental theorem, Clausius then presents us with the first-ever mathematical formulation of entropy. The third paper, published in 1865, invents and first uses the word 'entropy.'. Item #87

CONDITION & DETAILS: Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Bart 8vo. Beautifully rebound in half leather over marbled paper covered boards; raised bands on the spine; gilt-lettering. Two small interior library stamps. Near fine condition.

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