“Dipole Transitions in the Nuclear Photo-Effect” [Bethe & Levinger, pp. 115-129] WITH “Identity in Quantum Electrodynamics” [Ward, p. 182] in The Physical Review, Vol. 78, No. 2, April 15, 1950. H. A. Bethe, Hans, J. S. WITH Ward Levinger, J. C., John Clive.

“Dipole Transitions in the Nuclear Photo-Effect” [Bethe & Levinger, pp. 115-129] WITH “Identity in Quantum Electrodynamics” [Ward, p. 182] in The Physical Review, Vol. 78, No. 2, April 15, 1950

Lancaster: American Physical Society, 1950. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION IN ORIGINAL WRAPS OF TWO PAPERS OF SIGNIFICANCE TO THE THEORY OF THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES: Bethe and Levinger’s sum rule calculations demonstrated the total integrated photonuclear cross section, an important quantity demonstrating that the giant resonance, a “high-frequency collective excitation of atomic nuclei”, is caused, in the main, by absorption of electric dipole radiation” (Wikipedia). John Clive Ward’s introduction of the ‘Ward Identity’ (or ‘Ward’s Identities’), now known as the Ward-Takahashi Identity.

“Low lying giant dipole resonance provided the first evidence of a strong nuclear photoeffect, with an integrated cross section of the order of one classical sum rule, scaled by the ratio of the nucleon to the electron mass with respect to the atomic case” (Christillin, Nuclear Photoreactions, 1). The theoretical interpretation of this was first given in 1948 by Goldhaber and Teller.

Two years later, Bethe and Levinger “apply sum rules to calculate under certain approximations the integrated cross section and the mean energy for photon absorption by heavy nuclei” (Abstract, Physical Review 78, 1950, p. 115). Attributed to the onset of the electric dipole absorption, the sum rule they developed is independent of any particular model of the nucleus. Significantly, Bethe and Levinger realized “that an important modification to the electric dipole sum rule with respect to the atomic case was due to the presence of exchange potentials in nuclear physics” (Christillin, 2).

John Clive Ward was a British-Australian theoretical physicist whose contributions helped shape the post-war quantum era particularly with regard to particle physics and renormalization theory. In his second published paper, Ward, on the heals of work by Dyson, wrote about “the equivalence of the quantum electrodynamics theories of Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga (Duarte, The Man Behind an Identity in Quantum Electrodynamics, AP 46, 6, 2009).

“The Ward Identities have their origin in a 1950 paper [the paper offered] published in Physical Review. This was a succinct master piece authored by J. C. Ward… Building on previous work by Dyson this elegant letter proved in seven steps one of the most important and celebrated results of renormalization theory. In a following paper, published in 1951, Ward extended the initial result to a set of identities.

Today, the Ward Identity or Ward Identities, are standard teachings in theoretical physics and continue to be the focus of considerable research activity. Some four thousand journal physics papers have been published with Ward Identity or Ward Identities either in their titles or abstracts” (Duarte, Optics Journal Portal, Tunable Lasers). Item #928

CONDITION & DETAILS: Lancaster: American Physical Society. Quarto (11.25 x 8.25 inches; 275 x 200mm). Original wraps. Two barely visible (see scan) stamp on the front wrap and one on the rear. Professionally rebacked at the spine. Bright and clean. Near fine condition.

Price: $500.00