Item #987 Eine neue Methode zur Erzeugung kurzer, ungedämpfter, elektromagnetischer Wellen großer Intensität in Zeitschrift für Physik WITH Mitteilung, Bd. 95, pp. 752-762 (Heil); p. 801 (Rupp), 1936. A. Arsenjeva-Heil, O. WITH Rupp Heil, E., Agnesa, Oskar, Emil.

Eine neue Methode zur Erzeugung kurzer, ungedämpfter, elektromagnetischer Wellen großer Intensität in Zeitschrift für Physik WITH Mitteilung, Bd. 95, pp. 752-762 (Heil); p. 801 (Rupp), 1936

Berlin: Julius Springer, 1936. 1st Edition. FIRST EDITION OF A PIONEERING PAPER ON THE GENERATION OF MICROWAVES, specifically, it is “the first description of the fundamental principles behind modern high power linear beam microwave electron tubes” (Sarkar, History of Wireless, 341). The authors develop their concept of velocity modulation and spatial bunching, then describe and demonstrate their mechanism for velocity modulation in linear-beam tubes.

Agnesa Arsenjeva-Heil, a young Russian physicist, and her husband, a German scientist, Oskar Ernst Heil conducted their research with Lord Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. Prior to their work, “studies of the classical triode valve in which an anode current is controlled by a grid had shown that a fundamental difficulty for the highest frequencies was the excess grid control power needed due to electron inertia” (Dummer, Electronic Inventions and Discoveries, 108).

To circumvent this problem, Arsenjeva-Heil and Heil’s developed the concept of a velocity-modulated tube “in which a beam of electrons could be made to form into "bunches" and thereby generate with reasonable efficiency radio waves of considerably higher frequency and power than were possible with conventional vacuum tubes/thermionic valves” (Wikipedia).

In History of Wireless, Sarkar writes that the authors describe “a transit-time tube in which the three characteristic features; velocity modulation, phase focusing, and energy transfer were designed to occur in three separate regions, an arrangement which is also characteristic of a klystron. Further they demonstrated, in my opinion for the first time, that it is necessary, in order to achieve high RF power output, to use a linear electron beam, and that the beam must be positioned in such a way as to prevent the electrons from landing on RF electrodes - they must only be allowed to penetrate the fringe field of the RF electrodes, finally landing on a separate electrode, now called the collector. This arrangement made it possible to separate high frequency from beam guiding electrodes, thus permitting the use of high power electron beams… The authors also proposed “a two-beam electron gun and a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement by the use of a step-wise reduced voltage collector, a technique which is now commonly used in high power microwave tubes” (Sarkar, History of Wireless, 341-2).

ALSO INCLUDED is a retraction by the German physicist Emil Rupp of experimental work conducted in the 1920s. “In 1926, Rupp's canal ray experiments seemed to corroborate Einstein’s theories on wave-particle duality. He published these results in a paper that was printed next to a theoretical paper on the same subject by Einstein, who evidently accepted Rupp's alleged findings as confirming his (Einstein's) theoretical model. Rupp's experimental results were later shown to have been falsified (although subsequent experimental work re-confirmed Einstein's model). Item #987

CONDITION & DETAILS: Berlin: Julius Springer. Full volume. Bears the ownership stamp on the blank front flyleaf of Friedrich Hund, a German physicist known for his work on atoms and molecules. Ex-libris bearing two small stamps on the rear of the title page. Provenance: (9 x 6.5 inches; 225 x 163mm). [viii], 818pp, [2]. Bound in black cloth over marbled paper boards; very slight rubbing at the edge tips. Tightly and very solidly bound. Bright and clean inside and out. Near fine.

Price: $410.00